Water seepage happens mostly from the exterior wall, glass, roof, or ceiling. It may cause water staining, paint or wallpaper peeling, water dripping, fungus formation, faulty concrete, cement, tile debonding, and rust staining. A range of causes can be due to this. When producing nuisances for occupiers across floors, they are general errors. A waterproofing contractor in Bangalore said that the reason or origin of water infiltration, for which a detailed investigation may be needed to locate the initiated leakage, is often difficult to determine. Many homeowners also seek a list of warning signs of water pollution and destruction. Such issues emerge more often in cities suffering from extreme floods and long rainy seasons, such as Mumbai. As a reference for self-inspection, it is essential to provide a list, assuming that they will have early identification of issues and prompt redress.
For a ready reference, along with remedial steps and remedies, a preliminary checklist is given below.
Leaks from the roof, such as flat roofs, podium roofs, etc.
Terraces and Balconies Waterproofing
To waterproof terraces and balconies, people also adopt the old conventional Coba brickbat or Chinese mosaic methods. Although such cracks form in these surfaces when bricks are porous instead of waterproofing, they become water storage outlets. Using the new waterproofing technologies, such as liquid-applied co-polymer based acrylic coating or a filter, can be avoided. They are more elastic and are suitable for predicted movements in the roof structure. They cover the hairline cracks that form on the roof surface due to their higher crack-bridging capacity. The liquid coating may also be exposed to temperature and sunshine, but membranes, such as cement sand filtering, need protection. More than 8-10 years is the life cycle of such products. But the most important thing is to provide the surface with an acceptable gradient of 1:80 to 1:100 to prevent any ponding of the stream. The other points which should be noted are:
- The thickness of waterproofing materials available.
- Overlapping the substance at intersections.
- Upturns of content on walls and parapets.
- Protruding ducts and drains.
- Overall, the surface preparation of those materials and the proper form of application.
These materials may be used without dismantling the old waterproofing device on existing Coba or Chinese mosaic surfaces.
- Overall, the surface preparation of those materials and the proper form of application.
These materials may be used without dismantling the old waterproofing device on existing Coba or Chinese mosaic surfaces. Compared to the dead load of Brickbat Coba, this polymer waterproofing agent hardly adds weight to the body.
Damp patches on walls
Water penetration occurs through exterior wall defects such as hairline cracks, joints, honeycombs, spalling, weak points, holes, punctures, and leftovers of debris. The fractures in the hairline begin to rise deeper, allowing water to seep out. The passage of the external wall components leads to gaps in the wall. Water penetration is caused by faulty exterior wall finishes such as loosened mosaic tiles, fractured ceramic tiles & paint surfaces, low cladding, or curtain wall constructions. Another trigger may be water penetration through walls between units of pre-fabricated parts.
Waterproofing of external walls
The exterior walls are restored for shrinkage cracks in most Mumbai houses, misunderstood as some newcomers’ decorative treatments. An acrylic-based coating, which is extraordinarily elastomeric and prevents moisture from entering through hairline cracks, can protect the exterior walls. For an extremely decorative layer, they can be tinted to any desired hue. They have shallow dirt collection features that make the coated surfaces appear shiny. They have a long service life cycle of 6-8 years. They are ideal coatings for external cementing surfaces in a highly humid and marine climate like Mumbai. They are robust and keep the building stable by serving as a strong barrier between the substrate and the intense atmosphere.
Treatment of dampness of internal walls
An epoxy-based damp-proof covering can restore all the inner dampness of the walls, floors, tub, toilet, and kitchen. Such a layer can be used as a putty with OPC white cement for interior areas with moisture. But this cannot be used in extreme dampness areas; those places would be ideal for a crystalline coating.
Development inside the building of mold, mildew, and fungi
The emergence of mold, mildew, and fungi takes place within the building due to moisture infiltration. After the spores’ invasion, all these become visible and display a decoloration of paints and coatings and create an unhygienic environment within the houses. Through the application of an anti-microbial coating based on polyurethane, this can be avoided or repaired.
Leakages from internal wet areas
Owing to inappropriate joint design and improper sealant installation, bathroom or kitchen leakage is usually caused by intrusion from fitments, bathtubs, shower trays, submerged tubing, or drains. The insufficient slope of such floors will contribute to water retention, allowing water to enter through the tile joints.
Waterproofing of internal wet areas
All of the sanitary fitments and finishes should be handled with appropriate waterproofing systems before the waterproofing layer. Waterproof sand screening of cement or other related materials is widely used for this purpose. The screening should have significant upturns at the base of the walls and a good gradient of 1: 40 to 1:60 on the floor to immediately clear the water. The screening should have adequate upturns at the bottom of the walls and have a good gradient of 1: 40 to 1:60 on the floor to quickly drain the water to prevent water ponding. Without penetrating it, sanitary fitments should be placed on top of the waterproofing layer.
Leakages from metal pipe surfaces
Seepage through defective joints or pipes caused by poor installation or differential movements and settlements are the leading causes of water leakages from metal pipes. Corrosion of metal tubes at junctions of floors or walls, infiltration of water into ducts, blockage of tubes resulting in undue pressure being built up or often invaded by mice or plant roots causing damage to metal tubes and leaks occurring at those sites. In the case of exposed supply pipes or drains, there may be inadequacy in the design of gutters, such as insufficient diameter, bends being too sharp, etc. Also, blockage of drains at the junction of bends or traps, open joints such as hoppers of downpipes may lead to water leakages.
Leakage through joints
The windows’ leakage can be due to the creation of holes between the window and masonry frame, between the beam of the lintel and masonry, and between the edge of aluminum and the sill of the window. The leakage occurs through other joints, such as expansion and contraction joints, masonry joints between columns and beams, and all sanitary fittings.
Sealing of leakages at windows
Instead of filling the holes between the frame and masonry with putties, an acrylic sealant, serving as a gap filler, will fill the same. An ordinary putty with which defects exist after a specific time can not tolerate the slight movement at these joints, which can be prevented by sealing with an acrylic sealant.
Treatment at Joints
People sometimes use cement mortar to seal the distance between masonry and RCC beams and columns. Chicken mesh is also often used for this purpose. They extend and contract differently because of different kinds of structures, for which cracks grow afterward.
The musty smell coming from the basement may be subtle but grows more robust.
This may be due to ineffective or weakened waterproofing mechanisms for tanks (because of movements or punctures) and may be due to the degradation of water stops at the joints of structure and movement.
Basement waterproofing requires a detailed analysis of site conditions, including soil, groundwater table, and humidity-related, humidity-related pollutants present in the ground and external atmosphere, and the necessary internal environment in terms of dryness. Tank security is used in the various basement waterproofing schemes. Both interior surfaces should be applied with a liquid-applied coating or filter. In this integral waterproofing device, the structure needs to be built as a water-retaining structure, mixing the two for critical installations.
Treatment of rising dampness
At the plinth level and beyond, increasing dampness arises due to insufficient damp proof protection. For the prevention of such growing water, silicone injection grout may be used.
Peeling of paint from wood surfaces
Paint starts to chip off from the window frames, walls, and other surfaces where there are wood surfaces. This can occur due to improper fillings around frameworks and frame and sashes deformation, faulty gasket, sealant, or putty for window glass or frameset. The air conditioning box or platform would be the other element contributing to the wood surface due to moisture ingress, tilting inwards, or inadequate sealant around air conditioning units. From the presence of powdery particles occurring on the furniture and odor emanating from furniture and draperies, discomfort symptoms can be noticed. An acrylic sealant or a silicone sealant may close these holes, thus preventing those problems.
- Avoid nailing the outer board or the parapet.
- Do not modify or adjust building division use habits, i.e., kitchen to the bedroom, toilet to the kitchen, etc.
- May did not pierce structural elements such as a column, beam, slab, etc.
- Remember the deployment of waterproofing technologies at all critical locations